There is No Fate But What We Make: Cognate Words

Thursday, October 20, 2005

Cognate Words

Etymology is fascinating. Words tell stories.
See some of the cognate words in different languages.

Asti (Sanskrit)
Ist/Ast (Persian) , as in Hanooz Dilli Door Ast...
Is/Ist (English/German)

Asur (Sanskrit)
Ahur (Persian). In many words "s" in Sanskrit becomes "h"
in Persian. eg: Sindhu/Hindu

Bhratri (Sanskrit)
Birader (Persian)
Brother (English)

Dev (Sanskrit)
Deev (Persian)
Diva/Diu/Theo (Latin/Greek)

Do/Dwi (Sanskrit)
Two (English)

Three (English)
Tri (Sanskrit)

Saptam (Sanskrit)
Septem (Latin/Greek)

Ashtam (Sanskrit)
Octo (Latin/Greek)

Navam (Sanskrit)
Novem (Latin/Greek)

Dasham (Sanskrit)
Decem (Latin/Greek)

Agni (Sanskrit)
Aagon (Russian)

Agra (Sanskrit)
Agora/Acro (Greek)

Arya (Sanskrit)
Arya (Persian)
Aryan,Ehre (German for Honour)

Asthi (Sanskrit)
Ostheo (Latin/Greek)

Dwar (Sanskrit)
Darwaza (Persian)
Door (English)

Irshya/Ichcha (Sanskrit/Hindi)
Insha (Persian) (as in Insha-Allah, God willing)

Jaat, ja (Sanskrit/Hindi) (as in Girija, son of mountain,
or Pankaj, borne out of Mud, Lotus)
Zada (Persian) (as in Shahzada or "son of king" or
literally "borne to a king" or "prince")

Kendra (Sanskrit)
Centre (English), Kentron (Greek)

Keshar (Sanskrit)
Khusrow (Persian)
Ceaser/Czar/Kaisar (Latin/Russian/German)

Madhyam (Sanskrit)
Medium (English)(Eg: air is the medium for Radio waves)

Main/Aham (Hindi/Sanskrit)
Mam (Persian)
Me (English)

Manu (Sanskrit)
Man (English)

Matra (Sanskrit)(= Amount)
Meter (Greek/Latin), Measure (English)

Maatri (Sanskrit)
Maadar (Persian) (As in, the famous North Indian swear word maadar-ch**)
Mother (English)

Mrityu (Sanskrit)
Maut (Persian/Arabic)
Morte (Latin)(as in mortal, mortgage)

Naam (Sanskrit)
Nama (Persian) (as in Shahnama, the 11th century "book of kings")
Name (English)

Parth (Sanskrit) (as in Arjun's name in Mahabharata)
Parthian/Parth (Persian) (ancient Persian empire is known as Parthian empire)

Path (Sanskrit)(= way)
Path (English)

Pitri (Sanskrit)
Peter/Father/Pierre (English/French)

Sam (Sanskrit)(as in "samta")
Same (English)

Samiti (Sanskrit)
komitah (Persian)
commitee (English)

Shaurya (Sanskrit)
Shoja/Shuja (Persian) (as in Shah Shuja, Mughal Prince)

Sthan (Sanskrit)
Stan (Persian)(as in Afghanistan, Pakistan)
Station/stall (English) (as in station, install), Stone

Vaar (Sanskrit)
Ber (Latin/Greek) (as in december)

Yama (Sanskrit)
Yima,Jamm (Persian)

Fida (Persian/Arabic)(as in Fidayeen)
Fidelity (English)

Raja,Ray,Rajput (Sanskrit/Hindi)
Reza,Raza (Persian) (like the Shah of Iran, Reza Shah)
Regal(regicide) (Latin)

Kaarwaan (Persian/Arabic)
Caravan (English)

Urdu (Turkish) = Army of men, Army camp
Note: the language that was spoken by the Turkish armies in
the Indian subcontinent came to be known as "Urdu"
Horde (English) (as in "horde of men")

Mythya (Sanskrit)
Myth (Greek/English) (as in Mythology)

Ooper (Sanskrit/Hindi)
Upper (English)

Naranj (Sanskrit)
Orange (English)

Mitra (Sanskrit)
Mithra/Mate (Persian) (as in Shah-k-Mate, king's friend)
Mate (= friend) (Latin/English)

Paththar (Sanskrit/Hindi)
Petro (English)

Arun (Sanskrit)
Arora (English) (dawn)

Dharan (Sanskrit)("to hold", this is the same as
Bengali/Kashmiri surname "Dhar")
Darius (Persian) (to hold), Dario,
Daria (= holder of water, Lake/River)
Note: "Darius" is the Greek way of saying the Persian
name "Dara". in Asia, the word is said as "Dara".
One of Aurangzeb's brothers was Dara who was blinded and
killed by Aurangzeb.

Sthir (Sanskrit)(stationary)
Esther, Sitara (Persian)
Star, Install, Stationary (English)

Atma (Sanskrit)(soul)
Alma (Spanish for soul, also as in "alma mater")

Sant (Sanskrit)
Saint/San (Latin)

Khsatriya (Sanskrit)(warrier)
Xsayathiya (Persian) (King) , "Shah" must have have been
derived from this.

Desh (Sanskrit/Hindi)(country)
Dahyaus ("Country" in Old Persian. This word can be found in Avestha)

Bhumi (Sanskrit)
Bumis (Old Persian)

Bhagwan (Sanskrit)
Baga (Old Persian)

Gatha , Geet (Sanskrit)
Gatha's (Old Persian) (these are parts of the Avesta)

Nav (Sanskrit)(new)
Nou (Persian, as in Nouroz festival)
(Nouroz literally means "new day", however it is used to mean new year.)
New (English)

Shanka (Sanskrit)
Shaq (Arabic/Persian)

Yuva (Sanskrit)
Young / Juva (Latin) (as in juvinate)

Paradise (English/Latin)
Firdaus (Persian)
The word Firdaus has a very interesting etymology. The famous
saying about Kashmir goes:
gar firdaus, ruhe zamin ast
hamin ast, hamin ast, hamin ast

(if there is paradise on earth, it is here, it is here, it is here)

Please add to this list if you come across any other
interesting words.


At Thursday, December 01, 2005 4:16:00 PM, Blogger ancient injun said...

Cognate words...'cos apparently our ancestors came thru the route:
ural mountains-> persia-> India

Yep, a theory has it that Latin & Sanskrit were offshoots of the same mother language.

Maybe we can trace our history to someplace in Ukraine!

At Thursday, December 01, 2005 11:56:00 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

ancient injun,
when u say "our ancestors", you are
excluding the natives of south asia,
like the tribals,dravidians,and
inhabitants of north-east (though
the assamese are supposed to be migrants from upper burma)

At Sunday, December 04, 2005 7:19:00 AM, Anonymous ers said...

Just an add-on to your example-
Asur (Sanskrit)
Ahur (Persian)

Asur in Sanskrit refers to an evil being, demonaic in nature (Syn. - rakshas).

Ahur (more precisely, Ahura) in Persian refers to a deity or a benevolent being.

One man's Asur is another's Ahur?

At Sunday, December 04, 2005 7:37:00 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

"Asur in Sanskrit refers to an evil being, demonaic in nature (Syn. - rakshas)"
There is no real thing called Demon.
When two sides fight, the winning side
gets to write history and malign the
loser as "demon/rakshas" whatever.
So, "Asur" were probably just people
whom were conquered by the aryans.
That's why asurs are always shown as
dark skinned, living underground
The persian "Ahura" is actually the
same as Sanskrit "Sur" which means
the same as Ahura - god !
So it's not really inconsistent.

At Sunday, December 04, 2005 9:54:00 AM, Blogger Charu Majumdar said...

the post was a simple collection of cognate words. however, i am sensing that the responses may be sliding the issue towards controversial territory. next we will have the RSS types and some NRIs claiming that the whole arayan migration theory is false. i will welcome readers to add to this list instead of getting distracted into other issues.

At Sunday, December 04, 2005 11:05:00 AM, Blogger thennavan said...

Quite an exhaustive list. I could say I knew not more than 50% of the etymological roots of the words in this list and was in fact planning to write on that but you have covered more ground. Kudos :-)

At Sunday, December 04, 2005 11:18:00 AM, Blogger Nina said...

Very interesting. And a few off the top of my head.

Arisi (Ancient Tamil/Dravidian)
Oryza (Greek)

Injiver(Ancient Tamil/Dravidian)
Zingibera (Latin)

Padam (Sanskrit)
Ped (Latin)

At Sunday, December 04, 2005 12:44:00 PM, Blogger Aishwarya said...

Nina - if I remember correctly, the english words 'rice' and 'ginger' are adapted from the portugese versions of those words, and the portugese took the words from the Tamil language when they began to trade in the south of the country. Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam aren't connected with European languages that come from Latin, except for the inevitable crossover words they've obtained from Sanskrit.

At Sunday, December 04, 2005 1:43:00 PM, Blogger Sunil said...

Sanskrti, Persian, Greek, Latin....all directly related languages from a common ancestor.

You might enjoy an old post of mine describing language relationships..

At Sunday, December 04, 2005 7:01:00 PM, Blogger Charu Majumdar said...

Nina, loan words are different from cognate words. i will study the etymology of the words you mentioned.
cheers !

At Sunday, December 04, 2005 10:30:00 PM, Blogger Shruthi said...

That's an excellen compilation... Etymology has always fascinated me...

Here's one that I just remembered...

Sharkara (Sanskrit)
Sugar, sucrose (English)

At Monday, December 05, 2005 12:14:00 AM, Blogger thalassa_mikra said...

Charu, excellent compilation of words. A slight correction, if I may.

The language of the Avestan and Old Persian are not the same language. The Avestan language is the precursor of Old Persian. However, it has greater resemblance to Vedic Sanskrit than Old Persian.

Persian is generally divided into the following stages of development:

Avestan, Old Persian, Middle Persian (Pahlavi), and Modern Persian (Farsi, spoken now).

At Monday, December 05, 2005 12:54:00 AM, Blogger thalassa_mikra said...

A few other points.

In Persian:

door is "dar" not "darwaaza"

I is "man" not "mam"

death is "marg" not "maut"

In Persian, "naam" (meaning name) and "naameh" (meaning letter or book) are distinct words. The naameh in Shahnaameh is not related to "naam" in Sanskrit.

"komideh" in Persian is derived from French.

Greek month endings are iou or ios, as in Dekemvrios, Oktovrios.

It seems to me that most of your words are similar sounding rather than actually cognate.

At Friday, July 20, 2007 8:57:00 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

我发现还有更多的一)些同源词,which i'd like sumbit later.

Prof Dr. Chen Weiheng, National university of modern languages


At Friday, July 20, 2007 9:12:00 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

'ginger' 跟汉语“姜”也是关系词,究竟谁借谁,说不清楚。繁体汉字倒是讲出了,姜和僵硬的僵的关系,这一证据似支持该词为汉语源词。Middle English gingivere
中古英语 gingivere
from Old English gingifer
源自 古英语 gingifer
and from Old French gingivre
并源自 古法语 gingivre
both from Medieval Latin gingiber
都源自 中世纪拉丁语 gingiber
from Latin zingiberi
源自 拉丁语 zingiberi
from Greek zingiberis
源自 希腊语 zingiberis
[of Middle Indic origin] ; akin to Pali singiveram
[源自中印度语支的] ;类似于 巴利语 singiveram
from Dravidian
源自 达罗毗荼诸语
akin to Tamil iñci [ginger] [of southeast Asian origin]
类似于 泰米尔语 iñci [生姜] [源自亚洲东南部的]
Tamil v¶r [root]

国立现代语言大学 陈卫恒

At Friday, July 20, 2007 9:17:00 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

asur, 乌孙,不知有无关系?

derwaza(door)is a urdu word, or persian.
Chen Weiheng

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At Tuesday, December 29, 2009 9:45:00 PM, Blogger the grom said...

Fantastic while this has rolled around in my head and I have heard a few examples here and there...this is the first time I've seen such a fantastic and exhaustive compilation!


At Thursday, April 29, 2010 6:57:00 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Some Persian Words Common With Other Indoeuropean Languages ( Cognate Words

KISS persian boosse spanish beso french baiser italian bacio lithuanian bucinys / THUNDER persian tondar german donner / KNEE
persian zanu hindi janu french genou / BREAST persian sineh italian seno french sein / CRY persian geryeh swedish grata french cri german schrei / SHAME persian sharm german scham swedish scam / TYPHOON persian toophan / rain persian baran / THROAT persian galoo italian gola hindi gela slovenian grlo polish gardlo croatian grlo / THROAT persian kherkhere lithanian gerkle finnish kurkku / BALD persian kal italian calvo german kahl dutch kaal catalan calb finnish kalju spanish calvo / CORPSE persian lasheh german leiche hindi lash / ON FOOT persian piadeh french a pied italian a piedi / ENOUGH persian bass italian spanish basta / GOOSE persian ghaaz danish gas swedish gas spanish ganso slovenian gos / LICK perian liss polish lizac slovenian lizati / MORGUE persian marg = death / DEAD persian mordeh french mort italian morto / JACKAL persian shaghal finnish sakaali french chacal italian sciacallo swedish schakal / that persian ke french que italian che hindi ki / who persian ki french qui italian che / what persian che or che chizi italian che cosa / MOTHER persian madar italian madre spanish madre french mere swedish mor slovenian mati / FATHER persian pedar italian padre german vater dutch vader / DAUGHTER persian dokhtar german tochter dutch dochter danish datter / TOOTH persian dandan italian dente french dent lithuanian dantis / TWO persian do spanish dos italian duo lithuanian du hindi do french deux / FIVE persian panj hindi panch greek penta / SIX persian shish or shesh / EIGHT persian hasht german acht irish ocht hindi aat / NINE persian noh italian nove hindi no french neuf german neun irish naoi swedish nio / NEW persian no german neu italian nuovo hindi neya irish nua norvegian nye romanian nou / NO persian nah romanian nu lithuanian ne / PONDER persian pendar / INTER persian andar dutch onder german unter / STAR persian setareh dutch ster italian stella german stern / IS persian ast german ist french est spanish es / BROTHER persian baradar german bruder / NOT persian nist german nicht / YOU or THOU persian to italian tu slovenian ti german du hindi to / NAME persian naam german name hindi naam italian nome french nom / MOUSE persian mush italian mouse (pronounced mu - ze ) dutch muis croatian mish / WATER persian aab in rural persian "o", french eau / CHIN persian chaaneh / DOOR persian dar dutch deur / YOUNG persian javan italian giovani french jeune / EARTH persian zamin or zemin russian zimliah / COW persian gav sanskrit go or gau / YOKE persian yough german joch / DEVIL persian div italian diavolo / STAND persian estadan lithuanian stendas / NAVEL persian naf icelandic nafla estonian naba finnish napa german nabel / NAVE persian nav italian navata french nef / LIP persian lab spanish labio italian labbro portoguese labio /


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